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The neural mechanisms underlying effort process modulated by efficacy
Cao, Siqi; Liu, Xun; Wu, Haiyan
Source PublicationNeuropsychologia

Life is filled with uncertainty that imposes challenges for goal-directed effort. For example, whether effort reaps reward impacts the effort process. Real-life activities involve a long-term input of effort, implying that our effort process should be stably and consistently managed. The present study investigated how efficacy modulates the effort process from the perspective of overall performance and effort stability. Using a mini-block Stroop task and electroencephalography, we manipulated performance-reward contingency to pinpoint behavioral and neural features at each time stage (preparation, execution, and feedback-processing). Our findings revealed an efficacy-modulated effort process from three aspects. First, high efficacy induced a more prepared state before target presentation, which was identified by two neural indicators: contingent negative variation (CNV) and β oscillation (13–20 Hz). Then, drift rate and decision boundary reflected how people executed the task under different efficacy levels. Moreover, CNV and β oscillation affected sustained effort by modulating the drift rate, indicating preparatory state changed the execution to influence sustained effort. Finally, feedback-P3b captured shifts in the sustained effort after receiving different feedback. Taken together, these findings showed that efficacy modulates effort at each time course. Informative signals about efficacy and feedback are beneficial to trigger high-quality preparation and execution and drive effort adjustment.

KeywordEfficacy Proactive Control Sustained Effort Contingent Negative Variation β Oscillation
URLView the original
Indexed BySCIE ; SSCI
WOS Research AreaBehavioral Sciences ; Neurosciences & Neurology ; Psychology
WOS SubjectBehavioral Sciences ; Neurosciences ; Psychology
WOS IDWOS:000827286700001
Scopus ID2-s2.0-85133580981
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Cited Times [WOS]:0   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document TypeJournal article
Corresponding AuthorLiu, Xun; Wu, Haiyan
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GB/T 7714
Cao, Siqi,Liu, Xun,Wu, Haiyan. The neural mechanisms underlying effort process modulated by efficacy[J]. Neuropsychologia,2022,173.
APA Cao, Siqi,Liu, Xun,&Wu, Haiyan.(2022).The neural mechanisms underlying effort process modulated by efficacy.Neuropsychologia,173.
MLA Cao, Siqi,et al."The neural mechanisms underlying effort process modulated by efficacy".Neuropsychologia 173(2022).
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