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English Literacy Instruction for Chinese Speakers
Barry Lee Reynolds1; Mark Feng Teng2
Subtype(2)編著Edited
2019-01
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Publication PlaceSingapore
Other Abstract

Written with an emphasis on instruction, policy, practice, and assessment, this book focuses on English literacy at the pre-primary/primary, secondary, and university level, and discusses literacy policies in the region. An easy-to-read, solidly grounded book, it offers practical, thought provoking resources for classroom teachers and educators. It notably features explanations of key literacy skills, up-to-date research findings, and classroom applications that are contextualized for mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. This book provides pre-service and in-service teachers, English classroom practitioners, language teacher educators, literacy researchers, and students in research/teacher training programs a core set of instructional techniques on how to incorporate literacy-related ideas into English language classrooms. A valuable pedagogical resource for teaching and learning L2/EFL literacy, this book also highlights discussions on language and literacy policies and new examples of actual classroom teachers that have put English literacy instruction into practice.

 

 

Table of Contents

Part I Introduction

1 English Foreign and Second Language Literacy Development for Chinese Speakers: What Do We Know? ⋯⋯3 

Mark Feng Teng and Barry Lee Reynolds

Introduction ⋯⋯3 

Overview of the Volume ⋯⋯10 

References ⋯⋯13

Part II English Literacy Instruction for Pre-primary and Primary Education

2 Developing a School-Based Reading Program for Lower-Grade Primary Learners: The Case of a Primary School in Hong Kong ⋯⋯17

Benjamin L. Moorhouse and Kevin M. Wong

Introduction⋯⋯ 17 

Hong Kong Educational Reforms⋯⋯ 19

Government Programs⋯⋯ 20 

School-Based Programs⋯⋯ 23 

The School ⋯⋯25 

Rationale⋯⋯ 25

Development ⋯⋯26

Implementation ⋯⋯30

 Lessons Learned  ⋯⋯31 

Align Assessments with Teaching and Learning ⋯⋯31 

Align Differentiated Materials by Genre and Theme ⋯⋯32

Enhance Teachers’ Knowledge and Skills in Program Development and Implementation  ⋯⋯32 

Conclusion ⋯⋯33 

References ⋯⋯34

3 Measuring the Vocabulary Knowledge of Hong Kong Primary School Second Language Learners Through Word Associations: Implications for Reading Literacy⋯⋯ 35 

Qing Ma and Hung Yuk Lee

Introduction⋯⋯ 35 

Literature Review ⋯⋯36

L2 Reading Literacy Development and Vocabulary Knowledge⋯⋯ 36 

Word Association as a Way to Measure L2 Learners’ Vocabulary Structure/Knowledge 36 Two Key Factors That Influence WA Patterns: Word Knowledge and Word Class⋯⋯ 37

Methodology ⋯⋯39 

Participants⋯⋯ 39 

Test Instruments⋯⋯ 40 

Procedure⋯⋯ 41 

Data Analysis ⋯⋯41

Results and Discussion ⋯⋯42 

The Influence of Word Knowledge on the WA Patterns ⋯⋯42 

The Influence of Word Class on the WA Patterns 44 

The Influence of Other Factors ⋯⋯45

Readers vs. Non-readers in the L2⋯⋯ 46 

The Age Influence on Encyclopedic WA ⋯⋯46 

Reliance on L1 in Producing the L2 WA⋯⋯ 49

Pedagogical Implications⋯⋯ 50

Limitations of the Study ⋯⋯51 

Conclusion⋯⋯ 52 

Appendix 1: Word Association Test and Vocabulary Knowledge Scale (English Version) ⋯⋯52

Appendix 2: Sample Word Association Test and Vocabulary Knowledge Scale Collected from Students ⋯⋯53 

References ⋯⋯54

4  Second Language Literacy Instruction for Pre-primary Learners in Hong Kong: Using Stories, Songs, and Games ⋯⋯57 

Mei Lee Ng

Introduction ⋯⋯57

Dual Challenges for Hong Kong Pre-primary L2 Learners: Formal Instruction in Low L2 Exposure Contexts ⋯⋯58 

Distinctive Learning Needs of L2 Pre-primary Learners ⋯⋯59

Informal L2 Literacy Instruction Approach for Pre-primary Learners in Low L2 Exposure Contexts ⋯⋯60 

Vocabulary and Phonological Awareness (PA) as Important Foundational Skills for Early Literacy ⋯⋯60 

How Do Stories, Songs, and Games Develop Vocabulary
and PA? ⋯⋯61

Stories Contextualize Vocabulary Learning ⋯⋯62

Stories and PA 63 Using Songs, Chants, and Rhymes to Consolidate PA and Vocabulary ⋯⋯63

Songs and PA ⋯⋯64

Songs and Vocabulary Learning⋯⋯ 64 

Games Facilitate Vocabulary and PA ⋯⋯66 

Games and Vocabulary Learning⋯⋯ 66 

Games to Develop PA and Phonics ⋯⋯67 

Conclusion 68

Appendix 1 ⋯⋯69 

Appendix 2 ⋯⋯71 

References ⋯⋯72

5  The Effectiveness of Tailor-Made Content and Language Integrated Learning Materials for Taiwanese Primary School Students’ Literacy Development⋯⋯ 75

Tsui-Ying Lin, Wei-Hua Shih and Min-Shan Lee

Introduction⋯⋯ 75

The Introduction of CLIL ⋯⋯77 

What Is CLIL? ⋯⋯77 

CLIL in Taiwan Primary Education⋯⋯ 78 

CLIL and Young Learners’ Literacy Development⋯⋯ 79

The Tailor-Made CLIL Materials ⋯⋯80 

The Guidelines of the CLIL Materials Development ⋯⋯80 

The Process of Materials Development ⋯⋯82

Science and English Integrated Learning Materials ⋯⋯84

Arts and English Integrated Learning Materials⋯⋯ 85 

The Applications of the CLIL Materials ⋯⋯86

The Teachers’ Perspectives on Developing Young Learners’ Literacy with Tailor-Made CLIL Materials 90 Conclusion ⋯⋯92 

References ⋯⋯92

6 English Literacy Instruction in Macau PrimaryEducation: What Can We Learn from the Award Scheme on Instructional Design? ⋯⋯95 

Kan Kan Chan

Introduction⋯⋯ 95 

Methods ⋯⋯98 

Data Analysis⋯⋯ 99 

Results⋯⋯ 100

Teaching Objectives ⋯⋯100

Learning Activities⋯⋯ 101 

Teaching Resources ⋯⋯102 

Assessment Methods⋯⋯ 103

Discussion⋯⋯ 104 

Conclusion ⋯⋯107 

References⋯⋯ 107

Part III English Literacy Instruction for Secondary Education

7 English Literacy Development in Mainland Chinese Secondary English Classrooms: Pedagogical Recommendations for Enhancing Formulaic Language⋯⋯ 111 

Chen Ding and Barry Lee Reynolds

Introduction ⋯⋯111 

The Role of Formulaic Language in L2 Literacy Development⋯⋯ 113 

Formulaic Language⋯⋯ 113 

Formulaic Language Acquisition Promotes L2 Literacy⋯⋯ 114

Learning Environment in Secondary Schools in Mainland China⋯⋯ 115 

What Formulaic Language to Teach?⋯⋯ 116 

How to Teach Formulaic Language? ⋯⋯118

Formulaic Language Learning in Speaking Activities⋯⋯ 118 

Formulaic Language Learning in Listening Activities ⋯⋯119 

Formulaic Language Learning in Reading Activities ⋯⋯120 

Formulaic Language Learning in Writing Activities⋯⋯ 121 

Formulaic Language Learning and Other Awareness-Raising Activities⋯⋯ 122

Conclusion⋯⋯ 124 

References ⋯⋯125

8 Spaced Multi-draft Composing and Feedback in Mainland Chinese English as a Foreign Language Secondary School Writing Literacy ⋯⋯127 

Gavin Bui and Rhett Yu

Introduction ⋯⋯127 

Literature Review ⋯⋯128 

Methodology⋯⋯ 131

Participants and Grouping ⋯⋯131 

Task Design⋯⋯ 131 

Scoring⋯⋯ 132

Data Analysis ⋯⋯133 

Results ⋯⋯133 

Writing Quality⋯⋯ 133 

Writing Fluency⋯⋯ 135 

Discussion⋯⋯ 136 

Spaced Multi-draft Composing⋯⋯ 136 

Teacher’s Feedback⋯⋯ 137

English Proficiency⋯⋯ 138 

Pedagogical Implications⋯⋯ 139 

Conclusion⋯⋯ 140 

References⋯⋯ 140

9  Evolution of Writing Assessment in Hong Kong Secondary Schools: Policy, Practice, and Implications for Literacy Development⋯⋯ 143 

Ricky Lam

Introduction ⋯⋯143

Education Context and Learners ⋯⋯145 

Writing Assessment Development ⋯⋯146 

Change in Standardized Assessment ⋯⋯146 

Change in Classroom-Based Assessment⋯⋯ 148 

Methods of Review ⋯⋯149 

Outcomes of Review ⋯⋯150 

Assessment Policy ⋯⋯150 

Assessment Practices ⋯⋯152 

Discussion⋯⋯ 154

Pedagogical Implications and Conclusion⋯⋯ 155 

References⋯⋯ 156

10  Developing Thinking Skills in English Literacy Instruction in Taiwanese Secondary Schools: Teachers’ Perspectives ⋯⋯159 

Yuh-show Cheng and Hsi-nan Yeh

Introduction ⋯⋯159 

Relationships Between Critical Thinking and Thinking Skills ⋯⋯160 

Thinking Skills in Formal Education in Taiwan ⋯⋯163

Teachers’ Perceptions of Developing Thinking Skills in EFL Classes in Taiwan ⋯⋯164 

Three studies on the 2010 Senior High School English Curriculum Guidelines of Taiwan⋯⋯ 165 

Findings Related to Teachers’ Perceptions of Thinking Skills Instruction⋯⋯ 166

Discussions, Suggestions, and Conclusions 168 References ⋯⋯171

11  Literacy Skills Education from the Perspective of English as a Lingua Franca: A Case Study on Taiwanese Students’ Secondary English Language Education Experience ⋯⋯175 

Melissa H. Yu

Introduction ⋯⋯175

ELF Perspectives on Literacy Skills Development⋯⋯ 177 

Research Methodology ⋯⋯180 

Research Questions⋯⋯ 180 

Participants ⋯⋯180 

Data Collection and Analysis ⋯⋯181 

Findings and Discussion⋯⋯ 182 

Questionnaire Survey ⋯⋯182 

Inter views ⋯⋯184 

Summary and Conclusion ⋯⋯186

Appendix 1: Student Participants’ Professional Studies in Taiwanese Universities 1, 2, and 3 (U1, U2, and U3) ⋯⋯188 

Appendix 2: Student Questionnaire into Students’ Secondary Education Experience ⋯⋯190 

Appendix 3: Interview Questions ⋯⋯191 

Appendix 4: Transcription Convention Systems for Content Analysis of Interviews⋯⋯ 192 

References⋯⋯ 192

12 Teaching Reading in the Macau Secondary English Classroom: Some Critical Issues to Consider⋯⋯ 195 

Matilda Wong 

Introduction⋯⋯ 195

The Context of Macau ⋯⋯198 

Reading Instruction in the Macau Secondary Classroom: Problems and Discussions ⋯⋯199 

Some Suggestions for Teaching Reading in Macau Secondary Schools ⋯⋯205

References⋯⋯ 207

Part IV English Literacy Instruction for Tertiary Education

13 Critical Investigation of Intercultural Communication Instruction: Building Mainland Chinese University Students’ Critical Language Awareness
and Intercultural Literacy⋯⋯ 211 

Fan (Gabriel) Fang and Lianjiang Jiang

Introduction ⋯⋯211

Critical Language Awareness and Intercultural Literacy ⋯⋯213 

Methodology ⋯⋯215 

Research Setting and Participants ⋯⋯215 

Instruction Process and Activities ⋯⋯216 

Data Analysis ⋯⋯217 

Findings⋯⋯ 218 

Interview Findings ⋯⋯218 

Textbook contents on cultural knowledge⋯⋯ 218 

Intercultural communication instruction⋯⋯ 219 

Reflective journals ⋯⋯220 

Implications for Language Teachers ⋯⋯221 

Concluding Remarks⋯⋯ 224 

References⋯⋯ 225

14  Innovating English Literacy Instruction: A Writing Center at a Chinese University⋯⋯ 229 

Jing Zhang

Introduction ⋯⋯229

An Overview of the SIS Writing Center ⋯⋯230 

Literature Review ⋯⋯231

Multilingual Tutors at the Writing Center⋯⋯ 231 

Writing Center Practice in China ⋯⋯232 

A Chinese Writing Center: Two Affordances ⋯⋯233 

Peer Tutoring: Scaffolding Through Meaning Negotiation⋯⋯ 234 

Vignette 1 ⋯⋯235

Vignette 2 ⋯⋯236 

Vignette 3 ⋯⋯236 

Discussion Workshops: Shuttling in the Contact Zone ⋯⋯237

Implications and Future Research ⋯⋯240 

References ⋯⋯242

15  Developing Second Language Literacy: Taiwanese College Students’ Error Types in Focused Feedback Effectiveness ⋯⋯245 

Chian-Wen Kao

Introduction⋯⋯ 245 

Methodology ⋯⋯247

Participants and Groupings ⋯⋯247

Targeted Errors and Corrective Feedback⋯⋯ 248

Writing Tasks ⋯⋯250 

Procedures⋯⋯ 251 

Data Analysis ⋯⋯252 

Results⋯⋯ 252 

Discussion ⋯⋯255 

Limitations of the Study ⋯⋯257 

Implications for Teaching ⋯⋯258

Appendix: Writing Tasks over the Three Testing Stages ⋯⋯260 

References⋯⋯ 263

16 Hong Kong College Students’ Perceptions of Continuous Assessment in the Context of Academic Literacy Instruction ⋯⋯265 

Jingjing Ma

Introduction ⋯⋯265 

Literature Review⋯⋯ 266

Purposes of Assessment 266

Student Perceptions of Continuous Assessment ⋯⋯267 

The Study⋯⋯ 268

Findings ⋯⋯270

Teacher Implementation of Continuous Assessment ⋯⋯270 

Student Perceptions ⋯⋯270

Recognizing the Summative Aspect of the Continuous Assessment and Attaching Importance to Marks⋯⋯ 270

Enhancing the Understanding of Weak Areas and Writing Knowledge ⋯⋯271

Having Dialogs with Teacher and Students During Continuous Assessment⋯⋯ 272 

Being Able to Self-Evaluate After Continuous Assessment ⋯⋯273 

Being Motivated to Write After Doing Continuous Assessment ⋯⋯274

Suggesting the Use of Different Group Formations Across Different Tasks ⋯⋯274

Discussion⋯⋯ 274 

Conclusion ⋯⋯278 

References⋯⋯ 278

17 A Longitudinal Study of Second Language Literacy Instruction Through Assignment Design at the University of Macau ⋯⋯281 

Alice Shu-Ju Lee

Background ⋯⋯281

L2 Literacy Instruction, Pre- and Post-general Education Reform ⋯⋯283

Literacy from a Sociocultural Perspective ⋯⋯283

L2 Literacy Instruction Before GE Reform ⋯⋯284 

Using a Corpus to Review Course Materials and Student Feedback ⋯⋯285

Small Innovations in the Pre-GE Era ⋯⋯289 

L2 Literacy Instruction After GE Reform⋯⋯ 291

Concluding Remarks ⋯⋯294 

References ⋯⋯295

Part V Education Policy Towards English Literacy Instruction⋯⋯18

Language Tug-of-War: When English Literacy Education Encounters the National Matriculation English Test Policy in Mainland China ⋯⋯299 

Fang He and Mark Feng Teng

Introduction ⋯⋯299

English Literacy Education at the Secondary Level in Mainland China ⋯⋯300

Snapshot of the NMET Policy⋯⋯ 303 

NMET Policy Reform and Social Development ⋯⋯304 

Methodology ⋯⋯305 

Participants ⋯⋯305

Data Collection ⋯⋯306 

Data Analysis ⋯⋯306 

Findings ⋯⋯306 

NMET Policy and English Teaching and Learning ⋯⋯306 

English Education and the Learning of Other Core Subjects ⋯⋯308

Language Tug-of-War: English and Chinese Literacy Learning⋯⋯ 310

Chinese Learning and English Literacy Education Complement Each Other⋯⋯ 311 

Discussion and Conclusion ⋯⋯312 

Appendix: List of Some Sample Questions for the Interview⋯⋯ 314 

References ⋯⋯315

19  The “Biliterate and Trilingual” Policy in Hong Kong Primary School Education ⋯⋯317 

Lixun Wang

Background⋯⋯ 317 

Bilingualism in the Colonial Era ⋯⋯318

The “Biliterate and Trilingual” Policy in the Post 1997 Era⋯⋯ 319 

The Implementation of Trilingual Education in Hong Kong Primary Schools ⋯⋯321

What Languages Are Used to Teach Which Subjects in the Surveyed Schools? ⋯⋯322 

What Is the Relationship Between the Origins of Students and the MoIs Chosen by the Surveyed Schools? ⋯⋯324 

Is Code-Switching/Code-Mixing Allowed in Hong Kong Primary Schools? ⋯⋯324 

What Are the Difficulties in the Implementation of Trilingual Education Encountered by the Surveyed Schools? ⋯⋯325

What Is the Graduates’ Proficiency Level in the Three Languages in the Surveyed Schools? ⋯⋯326

\hat Is the Role of Putonghua in Teaching the Chinese Language Subject in the Surveyed Schools? ⋯⋯327 

Conclusion⋯⋯329 

References⋯⋯ 330

20  Moving Toward Content-Integrated English Literacy Instruction in Taiwan: Perspectives from Stakeholders ⋯⋯333 

Chiou-lan Chern and Jean E. Curran

Introduction ⋯⋯333 

New Policy: Twelve-Year Basic Education Curriculum Guidelines⋯⋯ 334 

Special Features of the English Curriculum ⋯⋯336 

The Impact of Policy Changes ⋯⋯337 

Reaction to the Policy: An Administrator’s Viewpoint⋯⋯ 337

Voices from English Teachers and Subject Teachers⋯⋯ 340 

Discussion ⋯⋯344 

Conclusion ⋯⋯345 

References ⋯⋯346

21 An Examination of Language Planning and Policy: Implications for Language and Literacy Education in the Macau Education System ⋯⋯349 

Sou-Kuan Vong and Xiaomeng Wu

Introduction⋯⋯ 349 

Languages in Society and LPP⋯⋯ 350 

Literacy and Medium of Instruction ⋯⋯351 

Development of LPP in the Macau education system⋯⋯ 352

LPP in the Political Transition Period⋯⋯ 352

LPP After the Sovereignty Handover Period ⋯⋯353 

Analysis of LPP in the Macau Education System⋯⋯ 354 

Relationship Between LPP and the Curriculum ⋯⋯355 

Relationship Between LPP and Teacher Education ⋯⋯358

Relationship Between LPP and School-Based Development Projects ⋯⋯361 Conclusions ⋯⋯362 

LPP is Highly Politicized in the Pre- and Post-1999 Eras⋯⋯ 362

English Language Education is Confronting Different forms of Challenge ⋯⋯362

The Incompatibility Between Planning and Policy in the Curriculum ⋯⋯362

Initial/Pre-service English Teacher Education Lags Behind the Needs of the Local Community ⋯⋯363 

Building up a Permanent University-School Partnership to Foster Language Education and Literacy ⋯⋯364 

External Assessment and Language Testing Systems Emerge as a New Driving Force⋯⋯ 364

References ⋯⋯ 364

Part VI Conclusion

22 English Foreign and Second Language Literacy Instruction for Chinese Speakers: Future Directions and Implications ⋯⋯369 

Mark Feng Teng and Barry Lee Reynolds 

Rethinking English Literacy Issues ⋯⋯369 

Reflections on the Issues ⋯⋯371 

Concluding Remarks⋯⋯ 376 

References ⋯⋯377

Index⋯⋯ 379

ISBN978-981-13-6652-9
DOI10.1007/978-981-13-6653-6
Pages382
Language英語English
Fulltext Access
Citation statistics
Document TypeBook
Version1
CollectionFaculty of Education
Affiliation1.University of Macau
2.Hong Kong Baptist University
First Author AffilicationUniversity of Macau
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Barry Lee Reynolds,Mark Feng Teng. English Literacy Instruction for Chinese Speakers[M]. 1. Singapore:Palgrave Macmillan,2019.
APA Barry Lee Reynolds,&Mark Feng Teng.(2019).English Literacy Instruction for Chinese Speakers.,382.
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