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Seasonal variations in the water residence time in the Bohai Sea using 3D hydrodynamic model study and the adjoint method
Luo, Chongxin1; Lin, Lei2; Shi, Jie1; Liu, Zhe1,3; Cai, Zhongya4; Guo, Xinyu1,5; Gao, Huiwang1
2021-02-01
Source PublicationOcean Dynamics
ISSN1616-7341
Volume71Issue:2Pages:157-173
Abstract

The Bohai Sea is a large, semi-enclosed bay of China with a transport timescale of more than 1 year. Residence time (RT) is an important indicator used to determine the water exchange rate of coastal oceans, and it has a significant influence on coastal ecosystems and the environment. In this study, the RT and its seasonal variability within the Bohai Sea were investigated using a 3-D hydrodynamic model and the adjoint method of the RT. The model results show that the annual mean RT in the Bohai Sea is 3.43 years, and the RT increases from the Bohai Strait to the northwestern coast. The seasonal variability of the RT averaged over the entire Bohai Sea is not obvious; however, the regional RT has a significant seasonal variation, which could be more than 290% on average. When the monsoon winds were removed from the model, the sensitivity experiment showed an annual mean RT increase of ~ 90% with negligible seasonal variations in most areas of the Bohai Sea. The wind-induced residual current controls the seasonal variation in ocean circulation and induces the seasonal variability in RT; thus, monsoon winds play a dominant role in the seasonal variations of the water exchange rate in the Bohai Sea. Sensitivity experiments also suggest that tides can slow the water exchange rate, whereas the baroclinic processes and river runoff can accelerate the water exchange rate in the region near the Yellow River estuary. This study highlights the critical role of monsoon winds in affecting seasonal variabilities in the coastal transport timescale and exchange rate.

KeywordAdjoint Method Bohai Sea Monsoon Winds Residence Time Seasonal Variation
DOI10.1007/s10236-020-01438-5
URLView the original
Indexed BySCIE
Language英語English
WOS Research AreaOceanography
WOS SubjectOceanography
WOS IDWOS:000605121100001
Scopus ID2-s2.0-85098965863
Fulltext Access
FWCI3.0164058
Citation statistics
Document TypeJournal article
CollectionTHE STATE KEY LABORATORY OF INTERNET OF THINGS FOR SMART CITY (UNIVERSITY OF MACAU)
Corresponding AuthorLiu, Zhe
Affiliation1.Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology (Ministry of Education), Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 238 Songling Road, 266100, China
2.College of Ocean Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266590, China
3.Department of Earth Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Beijing, China
4.State Key Laboratory of Internet of Things for Smart City and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Macau, Macao
5.Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Matsuyama, 2-5 Bunkyo-Cho, 790-8577, Japan
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Luo, Chongxin,Lin, Lei,Shi, Jie,et al. Seasonal variations in the water residence time in the Bohai Sea using 3D hydrodynamic model study and the adjoint method[J]. Ocean Dynamics,2021,71(2):157-173.
APA Luo, Chongxin,Lin, Lei,Shi, Jie,Liu, Zhe,Cai, Zhongya,Guo, Xinyu,&Gao, Huiwang.(2021).Seasonal variations in the water residence time in the Bohai Sea using 3D hydrodynamic model study and the adjoint method.Ocean Dynamics,71(2),157-173.
MLA Luo, Chongxin,et al."Seasonal variations in the water residence time in the Bohai Sea using 3D hydrodynamic model study and the adjoint method".Ocean Dynamics 71.2(2021):157-173.
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