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Comprehensive Source Apportionment of Submicron Aerosol in Shijiazhuang, China: Secondary Aerosol Formation and Holiday Effects
Lin, Chunshui1,2; Huang, Ru Jin1,3; Xu, Wei1,2; Duan, Jing1; Zheng, Yan4; Chen, Qi4; Hu, Weiwei5; Li, Yongjie6; Ni, Haiyan1; Wu, Yunfei7; Zhang, Renjian7; Cao, Junji1; O'Dowd, Colin2
Source PublicationACS Earth and Space Chemistry

To get a comprehensive source apportionment of the nonrefractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1), a merged dataset of the organic fragments and the inorganic species, measured by an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) during winter 2014 in Shijiazhuang, was used as input for positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis using the multilinear engine (ME-2) algorithm. Four primary factors were resolved by constraining the profiles of the previously separated organic factors, while three unconstrained secondary factors were resolved. Secondary factors (sum of organic and inorganic components) accounted for over half of NR-PM1 during normal days (NDs, 58% or 105.7 μg m-3) and Chinese New Year (CNY, 79% or 72.6 μg m-3). Among the organic components of the total secondary aerosol, 38-48% (8.0-14.4 μg m-3) of the oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) was attributed to the nitrate-rich OOA (i.e., OOA-NO3) factor, indicating that a part of the OOA was freshly formed and/or had similar volatility as nitrate. In comparison, a portion of 25-26% (5.5-7.7 μg m-3) of the OOA was attributed to the regionally transported sulfate-rich OOA (i.e., OOA-SO4) while 26-37% (7.3-7.4 μg m-3) of the OOA to aged primary aerosol. The positive relationship between OOA-SO4 and aerosol liquid water content (ALWC) in the same air mass suggested an aqueous-phase reaction pathway, which produced nearly half as much OOA as sulfate (12.0-17.0 μg m-3), while photochemical reactions could produce similar amounts of OOA as nitrate (8.6-15.4 μg m-3), as indicated by the positive relationship between OOA-NO3 and Ox (O3 + NO2). During CNY, the NR-PM1 concentrations (91.9 μg m-3) were reduced by ∼50% when compared to the nonholiday periods (182.7 μg m-3). This reduction was primarily due to the reduced anthropogenic activities, resulting in a 65-89% reduction in the primary emissions from traffic, cooking, biomass burning, and coal combustion, as well as a 1-44% reduction in secondary factors. The results in our study have significant implications for controlling primary emissions, while joint measures over a regional scale are needed to reduce the secondary aerosols in Shijiazhuang.

KeywordAir Quality Chinese New Year Oxygenated Organic Aerosol Particulate Matter Positive Matrix Factorization Regional Transport
URLView the original
Indexed BySCIE
WOS Research AreaChemistry ; Geochemistry & Geophysics
WOS SubjectChemistry, Multidisciplinary ; Geochemistry & Geophysics
WOS IDWOS:000552671200015
Scopus ID2-s2.0-85090929769
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Document TypeJournal article
Corresponding AuthorHuang, Ru Jin
Affiliation1.State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Center for Excellence in Quaternary Science and Global Change, Key Laboratory of Aerosol Chemistry and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an, 710061, China
2.School of Physics, Ryan Institute's Centre for Climate and Air Pollution Studies, Marine Renewable Energy Ireland, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, University Road, H91 CF50, Ireland
3.Institute of Global Environmental Change, Xi'An Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China
4.State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China
5.State Key Lab. of Organ. Geochem. and Guangdong Key Lab. of Environ. Protect. and Rsrc. Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640, China
6.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Taipa, 999078, Macao
7.RCE-TEA, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029, China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Lin, Chunshui,Huang, Ru Jin,Xu, Wei,et al. Comprehensive Source Apportionment of Submicron Aerosol in Shijiazhuang, China: Secondary Aerosol Formation and Holiday Effects[J]. ACS Earth and Space Chemistry,2020,4(6):947-957.
APA Lin, Chunshui,Huang, Ru Jin,Xu, Wei,Duan, Jing,Zheng, Yan,Chen, Qi,Hu, Weiwei,Li, Yongjie,Ni, Haiyan,Wu, Yunfei,Zhang, Renjian,Cao, Junji,&O'Dowd, Colin.(2020).Comprehensive Source Apportionment of Submicron Aerosol in Shijiazhuang, China: Secondary Aerosol Formation and Holiday Effects.ACS Earth and Space Chemistry,4(6),947-957.
MLA Lin, Chunshui,et al."Comprehensive Source Apportionment of Submicron Aerosol in Shijiazhuang, China: Secondary Aerosol Formation and Holiday Effects".ACS Earth and Space Chemistry 4.6(2020):947-957.
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