UM
Residential Collegefalse
Status已發表Published
Mapping geographical inequalities in access to drinking water and sanitation facilities in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000-17
Deshpande, Aniruddha1; Miller-Petrie, Molly K.1; Lindstedt, Paulina A.1; Baumann, Mathew M.1; Johnson, Kimberly B.1; Blacker, Brigette F.1; Abbastabar, Hedayat4; Abd-Allah, Foad21; Abdelalim, Ahmed21; Abdollahpour, Ibrahim27; Abegaz, Kedir Hussein29,30; Abejie, Ayenew Negesse35; Abreu, Lucas Guimarães36; Abrigo, Michael R.M.41; Abualhasan, Ahmed21; Accrombessi, Manfred Mario Kokou42,45; Adamu, Abdu A.46,47; Adebayo, Oladimeji M.50; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi53; Adedoyin, Rufus Adesoji54; Adekanmbi, Victor56; Adetokunboh, Olatunji O.46,57; Adhikari, Tara Ballav58,59; Afarideh, Mohsen5,60; Agudelo-Botero, Marcela61; Ahmadi, Mehdi64; Ahmadi, Keivan63,69; Ahmed, Anwar E.70; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir71,74; Akalu, Temesgen Yihunie75; Akanda, Ali S.79; Alahdab, Fares80; Al-Aly, Ziyad81,82; Alam, Noore83,84; Alam, Samiah85; Alamene, Genet Melak31; Alanzi, Turki M.86; Albright, James1; Albujeer, Ammar89; Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth90; Alebel, Animut32,96; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw33; Ali, Muhammad98; Alijanzadeh, Mehran99; Alipour, Vahid100,101; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed109,110; Almasi, Ali111; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir123; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.126,128; Altirkawi, Khalid A.129; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson131,132; Alvis-Zakzuk, Nelson J.133,134; Amini, Saeed124; Amit, Arianna Maever L.136,139; Amul, Gianna Gayle Herrera144; Andrei, Catalina Liliana145; Anjomshoa, Mina148; Ansariadi, Ansariadi149; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.137,150; Antony, Benny152; Antriyandarti, Ernoiz153; Arabloo, Jalal100; Aref, Hany Mohamed Amin154; Aremu, Olatunde156; Armoon, Bahram157,158; Arora, Amit159,160; Aryal, Krishna K.161; Arzani, Afsaneh162,166; Asadi-Aliabadi, Mehran102; Asmelash, Daniel76; Atalay, Hagos Tasew167; Athari, Seyyed Shamsadin171; Athari, Seyyede Masoume170; Atre, Sachin R.140,174; Ausloos, Marcel175,176; Awasthi, Shally177; Awoke, Nefsu178; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala181; Ayano, Getinet183; Ayanore, Martin Amogre184; Aynalem, Yared Asmare186; Azari, Samad100; Azman, Andrew S.141; Babaee, Ebrahim102; Badawi, Alaa187,188; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba191; Bakkannavar, Shankar M.192,586,587; Balakrishnan, Senthilkumar195; Banach, Maciej198,199; Banoub, Joseph Adel Mattar200,201; Barac, Aleksandra203,204; Barboza, Miguel A.207,208; Bärnighausen, Till Winfried209,210; Basu, Sanjay211,214; Bay, Vo Dinh217; Bayati, Mohsen218; Bedi, Neeraj127,220; Beheshti, Mahya221; Behzadifar, Meysam223; Behzadifar, Masoud224; Ramirez, Diana Fernanda Bejarano226,227; Bell, Michelle L.228; Bennett, Derrick A.229; Benzian, Habib222; Berbada, Dessalegn Ajema232; Bernstein, Robert S.234; Bhat, Anusha Ganapati235; Bhattacharyya, Krittika236,237; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep238,240; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.189,244; Bijani, Ali163; Bikbov, Boris246; Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat Bin247,249; Biswas, Raaj Kishore241; Bohlouli, Somayeh250; Boufous, Soufiane241; Brady, Oliver J.43; Briko, Andrey Nikolaevich251; Briko, Nikolay Ivanovich252; Britton, Gabrielle B.255,256; Brown, Alexandria1; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina257; Butt, Zahid A.258,259; Cámera, Luis Alberto260,261; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R.91; Rincon, Julio Cesar Campuzano95,263; Cano, Jorge42; Car, Josip215,264; Cárdenas, Rosario265; Carvalho, Felix266; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A.135,269; Castro, Franz256; Cerin, Ester271,272; Chalise, Binaya275; Chattu, Vijay Kumar190; Chin, Ken Lee276,279; Christopher, Devasahayam J.280,664; Chu, Dinh Toi283; Cormier, Natalie Maria1; Costa, Vera Marisa266; Cromwell, Elizabeth A.1,2; Dadi, Abel Fekadu77,284; Dahiru, Tukur287; Dahlawi, Saad M.A.87; Dandona, Rakhi1,2,291; Dandona, Lalit1,291,292; Dang, Anh Kim293; Daoud, Farah1; Darwesh, Aso Mohammad294; Darwish, Amira Hamed296; Daryani, Ahmad297; Das, Jai K.245; Das Gupta, Rajat301,302; Dash, Aditya Prasad303; Dávila-Cervantes, Claudio Alberto304; Weaver, Nicole Davis1; De La Hoz, Fernando Pio270; De Neve, Jan Walter209; Demissie, Dereje Bayissa305,308; Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam168; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar92; Deribe, Kebede309,310; Desalew, Assefa196; Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda1,315; Dhillon, Preeti316; Dhimal, Meghnath319; Dhungana, Govinda Prasad320; Diaz, Daniel62,321; Dipeolu, Isaac Oluwafemi322; Do, Hoa Thi325; Dolecek, Christiane229,327; Doyle, Kerrie E.328,330; Dubljanin, Eleonora205,600; Duraes, Andre Rodrigues331,333; Edinur, Hisham Atan334; Effiong, Andem335; Eftekhari, Aziz172,337; El Nahas, Nevine154; El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa338; El Tantawi, Maha202,569; Elhabashy, Hala Rashad22; El-Jaafary, Shaimaa I.21; El-Khatib, Ziad339; Elkout, Hajer340,341; Elsharkawy, Aisha23; Enany, Shymaa342; Endalew, Daniel Adane343; Eshrati, Babak102; Eskandarieh, Sharareh6; Etemadi, Arash344; Ezekannagha, Oluchi345,346; Faraon, Emerito Jose A.137; Fareed, Mohammad347; Faro, Andre348; Farzadfar, Farshad7; Fasil, Alebachew76; Fazlzadeh, Mehdi8,349; Feigin, Valery L.1,352,353; Fekadu, Wubalem311,354; Fentahun, Netsanet355; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed Mohammad356,359; Fernandes, Eduarda267; Filip, Irina360,361; Fischer, Florian362; Flohr, Carsten363; Foigt, Nataliya A.365; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin55; Foroutan, Masoud366; Franklin, Richard Charles367; Frostad, Joseph Jon1; Fukumoto, Takeshi368; Gad, Mohamed M.369,371; Garcia, Gregory M.1; Gatotoh, Augustine Mwangi372,373; Gayesa, Reta Tsegaye376; Gebremedhin, Ketema Bizuwork312; Geramo, Yilma Chisha Dea232; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha285,379; Gezae, Kebede Embaye380; Ghashghaee, Ahmad100,103; Sherbaf, Farzaneh Ghazi142; Gill, Tiffany K.387; Gill, Paramjit Singh390; Ginindza, Themba G.392; Girmay, Alem167; Gizaw, Zemichael77; Goodridge, Amador393; Gopalani, Sameer Vali394,395,396; Goulart, Alessandra C.397,398; Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia400; Grada, Ayman401; Green, Manfred S.402; Gubari, Mohammed Ibrahim Mohialdeen403; Gugnani, Harish Chander404,405; Guido, Davide406; Guimarães, Rafael Alves407; Guo, Yuming276,408; Gupta, Rahul409,410; Gupta, Rajeev411,412; Ha, Giang Hai293; Haagsma, Juanita A.413; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima9,143; Haile, Dessalegn H.32; Haile, Michael Tamene306; Hall, Brian J.414; Hamidi, Samer415; Handiso, Demelash Woldeyohannes416; Haririan, Hamidreza417; Hariyani, Ninuk388,418; Hasaballah, Ahmed I.420; Hasan, Md Mehedi421,422; Hasanzadeh, Amir10,173; Hassen, Hamid Yimam423,424; Hayelom, Desta Haftu232; Hegazy, Mohamed I.21; Heibati, Behzad425; Heidari, Behnam5; Hendrie, Delia183; Henok, Andualem426; Herteliu, Claudiu176,426; Heydarpour, Fatemeh112; de Hidru, Hagos Degefa427; Hird, Thomas R.428; Hoang, Chi Linh326; Hollerich, Gillian I.1; Hoogar, Praveen193; Hossain, Naznin430; Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi295,431; Househ, Mowafa432; Hu, Guoqing433; Humayun, Ayesha434; Hussain, Syed Ather435; Hussen, Mamusha Aman A.72; Ibitoye, Segun Emmanuel322; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen51,323; Ilic, Milena D.436; Imani-Nasab, Mohammad Hasan225; Iqbal, Usman438; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi440; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful446,447; Ivers, Rebecca Q.449; Iwu, Chinwe Juliana46,49; Jahanmehr, Nader441,442; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo253,437; Jalali, Amir113,114; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra450,451; Jenabi, Ensiyeh452; Jha, Ravi Prakash457,458; Jha, Vivekanand194,239; Ji, John S.459,460; Jonas, Jost B.462,463; Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy464; Kabir, Ali104; Kabir, Zubair465; Kanchan, Tanuj466; Karch, André467; Karki, Surendra241; Kasaeian, Amir11,105; Kasahun, Gebremicheal Gebreslassie168; Kasaye, Habtamu Kebebe377; Kassa, Getachew Mullu34; Kassa, Gebrehiwot G.169; Kayode, Gbenga A.468,469,470; Kebede, Mihiretu M.471,472; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga372; Ketema, Daniel Bekele33; Khader, Yousef Saleh473; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif65; Khalid, Nauman474; Khalilov, Rovshan475,476; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad478; Khan, Junaid317; Khan, Md Nuruzzaman Nuruzzaman336,477; Khatab, Khaled479,480; Khater, Mona M.24; Khater, Amir M.25; Khayamzadeh, Maryam445,481; Khazaei, Mohammad453; Khosravi, Mohammad Hossein106; Khubchandani, Jagdish482; Kiadaliri, Ali483,484; Kim, Yun Jin485; Kimokoti, Ruth W.486; Kisa, Sezer487; Kisa, Adnan488,489; Kochhar, Sonali3,490; Kolola, Tufa307; Komaki, Hamidreza454,455,491; Kosen, Soewarta492; Koul, Parvaiz A.493; Koyanagi, Ai494,495; Krishan, Kewal496; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate497,498; Kugbey, Nuworza185; Kumar, Pushpendra318; Anil Kumar, G.291; Kumar, Manasi374,499; Kusuma, Dian216,500; La Vecchia, Carlo501; Lacey, Ben229,502; Lal, Aparna247; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar291; Lam, Hilton503; Lami, Faris Hasan504; Lansingh, Van Charles505,506; Lasrado, Savita507; Lebedev, Georgy254,508; Lee, Paul H.151; LeGrand, Kate E.1; Leili, Mostafa453; Lenjebo, Tsegaye Lolaso179; Leshargie, Cheru Tesema509; Levine, Aubrey J.1; Lewycka, Sonia230,510; Li, Shanshan279; Linn, Shai403; Liu, Shiwei511; Lopez, Jaifred Christian F.138,512; Lopukhov, Platon D.251; El Razek, Muhammed Magdy Abd513; Mahadeshwara Prasad, D. R.514,515; Mahasha, Phetole Walter48; Mahotra, Narayan B.516; Majeed, Azeem215; Malekzadeh, Reza12,219; Malta, Deborah Carvalho37; Mamun, Abdullah A.422; Manafi, Navid107,517; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali13; Mapoma, Chabila Christopher518; Martinez, Gabriel519; Martini, Santi419,520; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio521; Mathur, Manu Raj289,522; Mayala, Benjamin K.1,523; Mazidi, Mohsen364; McAlinden, Colm524; Meharie, Birhanu Geta525; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan526,527; Nasab, Entezar Mehrabi14; Mehta, Kala M.528; Mekonnen, Teferi530; Mekonnen, Tefera Chane526; Meles, Gebrekiros Gebremichael381; Meles, Hagazi Gebre386; Memiah, Peter T.N.531; Memish, Ziad A.532,533; Mendoza, Walter534; Menezes, Ritesh G.88; Mereta, Seid Tiku73; Meretoja, Tuomo J.535,536; Mestrovic, Tomislav537,538; Metekiya, Workua Mekonnen382; Miazgowski, Bartosz539,540,541; Miller, Ted R.183,542; Mini, G. K.452,543; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.544,545; Moazen, Babak210,546; Mohajer, Bahram7; Mohammad, Yousef130; Mohammad, Dara K.357,547; Mezerji, Naser Mohammad Gholi456; Mohammadibakhsh, Roghayeh457; Mohammed, Shafiu209; Mohammed, Jemal Abdu548; Mohammed, Hassen389; Mohebi, Farnam7,15; Mokdad, Ali H.1,2; Moodley, Yoshan549; Moradi, Ghobad550,551; Moradi, Masoud115; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad550,551,552; Moraga, Paula429; Morales, Linda93; Mosapour, Abbas164,553; Mosser, Jonathan F.1; Mouodi, Simin163; Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam16; Mozaffor, Miliva554,555; Munro, Sandra B.1; Muriithi, Moses K.375; Murray, Christopher J.L.1; Musa, Kamarul Imran556; Mustafa, Ghulam557,558; Muthupandian, Saravanan383; Naderi, Mehdi116; Nagarajan, Ahamarshan Jayaraman559,560,561; Naghavi, Mohsen1,2; Naik, Gurudatta562; Nangia, Vinay564; Nascimento, Bruno Ramos38,39; Nazari, Javad125; Ndwandwe, Duduzile Edith47; Negoi, Ionut146,565; Netsere, Henok Biresaw78,566; Ngunjiri, Josephine W.567; Nguyen, Cuong Tat293; Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi293; Nguyen, Quynhanh P.1; Nigatu, Solomon Gedlu77; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini439,568; Nnaji, Chukwudi A.49,570; Nojomi, Marzieh102,108; Norheim, Ole F.212,571; Noubiap, Jean Jacques572; Oancea, Bogdan573; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene329; Oh, In Hwan574; Olagunju, Andrew T.575,576,578; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola579; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun579; Onwujekwe, Obinna E.580; Ortega-Altamirano, Doris V.94; Osarenotor, Osayomwanbo581; Osei, Frank B.582,583; Owolabi, Mayowa O.52,324; Mahesh, P. A.584; Padubidri, Jagadish Rao585; Pakhale, Smita588; Pana, Adrian176,589; Park, Eun Kee590; Patel, Sangram Kishor591; Pathak, Ashish358,592; Patle, Ajay317,593; Paulos, Kebreab180; Pepito, Veincent Christian Filipino594; Perico, Norberto595; Pervaiz, Aslam596; Pescarini, Julia Moreira598; Pesudovs, Konrad242; Pham, Hai Quang293; Pigott, David M.1,2; Pilgrim, Thomas599,645; Pirsaheb, Meghdad115; Poljak, Mario601; Pollock, Ian1; Postma, Maarten J.602,603; Pourmalek, Farshad604; Pourshams, Akram12; Prada, Sergio I.605,606; Preotescu, Liliana147,607; Quintana, Hedley256; Rabiee, Navid191; Rabiee, Mohammad608; Radfar, Amir609; Rafiei, Alireza298,299; Rahim, Fakher17,66; Rahimi, Siavash300; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa18; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur610,611; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz182; Rajati, Fatemeh115; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal612,613; Rao, Puja C.1; Rasella, Davide332; Rath, Goura Kishor612; Rawaf, Salman615,616; Rawal, Lal617; Rawasia, Wasiq Faraz618; Remuzzi, Giuseppe597; Renjith, Vishnu619; Renzaho, Andre M.N.620,621; Resnikoff, Serge243,622; Riahi, Seyed Mohammad623; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel268; Rickard, Jennifer622,624; Roever, Leonardo625; Ronfani, Luca626; Rubagotti, Enrico627,628; Rubino, Salvatore629; Saad, Anas M.370; Sabour, Siamak443; Sadeghi, Ehsan115; Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi7; Safari, Yahya115; Sagar, Rajesh614; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali6; Mohammad Sajadi, S.630,631; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza117; Salam, Nasir632; Saleem, Ahsan633; Salem, Marwa Rashad634; Salem, Hosni26; Salimi, Yahya118,119; Salimzadeh, Hamideh12; Samy, Abdallah M.155; Sanabria, Juan635,636; Santos, Itamar S.398,399; Santric-Milicevic, Milena M.204,206; Jose, Bruno Piassi Sao40; Saraswathy, Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer637,638; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal28,604; Sartorius, Benn2,44; Sathian, Brijesh639,640; Sathish, Thirunavukkarasu577; Satpathy, Maheswar641,642; Sawhney, Monika643; Sayyah, Mehdi67; Sbarra, Alyssa N.1; Schaeffer, Lauren E.1; Schwebel, David C.563; Senbeta, Anbissa Muleta643; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian644; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.12,219; Serván-Mori, Edson91; Shafieesabet, Azadeh646,647; Shaheen, Amira A.648; Shahid, Izza649; Shaikh, Masood Ali648; Shalash, Ali S.154; Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran649; Shamsi, Mohammadbagher120; Shamsizadeh, Morteza650; Shannawaz, Mohammed288,651; Sharafi, Kiomars115; Sharma, Rajesh652; Sheikh, Aziz213,653; Shetty, B. Suresh Kumar588; Shiferaw, Wondimeneh Shibabaw186; Shigematsu, Mika655; Shin, Jae Il656; Shiri, Rahman657; Shirkoohi, Reza19,20; Shivakumar, K. M.658; Si, Si277; Siabani, Soraya97,121; Siddiqi, Tariq Jamal659; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos661; Singh, Balbir Bagicha448,662; Singh, Ambrish153; Singh, Virendra663; Singh, Narinder Pal665; Singh, Jasvinder A.564,666; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain667,668; Sisay, Malede Mequanent76; Skiadaresi, Eirini669; Smith, David L.1,2; Filho, Adauto Martins Soares670,671; Sobhiyeh, Mohammad Reza122; Sokhan, Anton672; Soriano, Joan B.673,674; Sorrie, Muluken Bekele233; Soyiri, Ireneous N.675; Spurlock, Emma Elizabeth1; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.676; Sudaryanto, Agus677; Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale288; Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul678; Sykes, Bryan L.680; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael681,682; Tabuchi, Takahiro683; Tadesse, Degena Bahrey168; Tarigan, Ingan Ukur684; Taye, Bineyam685; Tefera, Yonatal Mesfin389,529; Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash102,108; Tekelemedhin, Shishay Wahdey388; Tekle, Merhawi Gebremedhin197; Temsah, Mohamad Hani129; Tesfay, Fisaha Haile286,382; Tesfay, Berhe Etsay430; Tessema, Zemenu Tadesse77; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman686; Thekkepurakkal, Akhil Soman290; Thomas, Nihal281; Thompson, Robert L.1; Thomson, Alan J.687; Topor-Madry, Roman688,689; Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto690,691; Traini, Eugenio473; Tran, Bach Xuan692; Tran, Khanh Bao693,694; Ullah, Irfan695; Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran589; Usman, Muhammad Shariq660; Uthman, Olalekan A.391; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S.Chudi582; Valdez, Pascual R.262,696; Varughese, Santosh282; Veisani, Yousef697; Violante, Francesco S.698,699; Vollmer, Sebastian700; Whawariat, Feleke Gebremeskel232; Waheed, Yasir701; Wallin, Mitchell Taylor533,702; Wang, Yuan Pang703; Wang, Yafeng402; Wangdi, Kinley248; Weiss, Daniel J.231; Weldesamuel, Girmay Teklay167; Werkneh, Adhena Ayaliew384; Westerman, Ronny705; Wiangkham, Taweewat706; Wiens, Kirsten E.1; Wijeratne, Tissa679,707; Wiysonge, Charles Shey50,570; Wolde, Haileab Fekadu76; Wondafrash, Dawit Zewdu313,385; Wonde, Tewodros Eshete33; Worku, Getasew Taddesse233,708; Yadollahpour, Ali68; Jabbari, Seyed Hossein Yahyazadeh709; Yamada, Tomohide710; Yaseri, Mehdi13,444; Yatsuya, Hiroshi711,712; Yeshaneh, Alex344; Yilma, Mekdes Tigistu378; Yip, Paul273,274; Yisma, Engida314; Yonemoto, Naohiro713,714; Younis, Mustafa Z.715,716; Yousof, Hebat Allah Salah A.24; Yu, Chuanhua703,704; Yusefzadeh, Hasan717; Zadey, Siddhesh461; Moghadam, Telma Zahirian350; Zaidi, Zoubida718; Zaman, Sojib Bin278,719; Zamani, Mohammad165; Zandian, Hamed350,351; Zar, Heather J.571,720; Zerfu, Taddese Alemu654,721; Zhang, Yunquan722,723; Ziapour, Arash121; Zodpey, Sanjay291; Zuniga, Yves Miel H.724,725; Hay, Simon I.1,2; Reiner, Robert C.1,2,726
2020-09-01
Source PublicationThe Lancet Global Health
ISSN2214-109X
Volume8Issue:9Pages:e1162-e1185
Abstract

Background: Universal access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities is an essential human right, recognised in the Sustainable Development Goals as crucial for preventing disease and improving human wellbeing. Comprehensive, high-resolution estimates are important to inform progress towards achieving this goal. We aimed to produce high-resolution geospatial estimates of access to drinking water and sanitation facilities. Methods: We used a Bayesian geostatistical model and data from 600 sources across more than 88 low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) to estimate access to drinking water and sanitation facilities on continuous continent-wide surfaces from 2000 to 2017, and aggregated results to policy-relevant administrative units. We estimated mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive subcategories of facilities for drinking water (piped water on or off premises, other improved facilities, unimproved, and surface water) and sanitation facilities (septic or sewer sanitation, other improved, unimproved, and open defecation) with use of ordinal regression. We also estimated the number of diarrhoeal deaths in children younger than 5 years attributed to unsafe facilities and estimated deaths that were averted by increased access to safe facilities in 2017, and analysed geographical inequality in access within LMICs. Findings: Across LMICs, access to both piped water and improved water overall increased between 2000 and 2017, with progress varying spatially. For piped water, the safest water facility type, access increased from 40·0% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 39·4–40·7) to 50·3% (50·0–50·5), but was lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, where access to piped water was mostly concentrated in urban centres. Access to both sewer or septic sanitation and improved sanitation overall also increased across all LMICs during the study period. For sewer or septic sanitation, access was 46·3% (95% UI 46·1–46·5) in 2017, compared with 28·7% (28·5–29·0) in 2000. Although some units improved access to the safest drinking water or sanitation facilities since 2000, a large absolute number of people continued to not have access in several units with high access to such facilities (>80%) in 2017. More than 253 000 people did not have access to sewer or septic sanitation facilities in the city of Harare, Zimbabwe, despite 88·6% (95% UI 87·2–89·7) access overall. Many units were able to transition from the least safe facilities in 2000 to safe facilities by 2017; for units in which populations primarily practised open defecation in 2000, 686 (95% UI 664–711) of the 1830 (1797–1863) units transitioned to the use of improved sanitation. Geographical disparities in access to improved water across units decreased in 76·1% (95% UI 71·6–80·7) of countries from 2000 to 2017, and in 53·9% (50·6–59·6) of countries for access to improved sanitation, but remained evident subnationally in most countries in 2017. Interpretation: Our estimates, combined with geospatial trends in diarrhoeal burden, identify where efforts to increase access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities are most needed. By highlighting areas with successful approaches or in need of targeted interventions, our estimates can enable precision public health to effectively progress towards universal access to safe water and sanitation. 

DOI10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30278-3
URLView the original
Language英語English
Scopus ID2-s2.0-85089509873
Fulltext Access
FWCI4.7239747
Citation statistics
Document TypeJournal article
CollectionUniversity of Macau
Affiliation1.Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, United States
2.Department of Health Metrics Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, United States
3.Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, United States
4.Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5.Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
6.Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
7.Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
8.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
9.School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
10.Department of Microbiology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
11.Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
12.Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
13.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
14.Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
15.National Institute of Health Research (NIHR), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
16.Department of Health Policy, Management, and Economics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
17.Metabolomics and Genomics Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
18.Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
19.Cancer Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
20.Cancer Biology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
21.Department of Neurology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
22.Neurophysiology Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
23.Endemic Medicine and Hepatogastroentrology Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
24.Department of Medical Parasitology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
25.National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
26.Urology Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
27.Neuroscience Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
28.Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
29.Department of Biostatistics, Near East University, Nicosia, Cyprus
30.Department of Biostatistics and Health Informatics, Madda Walabu University, Bale Robe, Ethiopia
31.Department of Public Health, Madda Walabu University, Bale Robe, Ethiopia
32.Department of Nursing, Debre Markos, Ethiopia
33.Department of Public Health, Debre Markos, Ethiopia
34.College of Health Sciences, Debre Markos, Ethiopia
35.Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia
36.Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
37.Department of Maternal and Child Nursing and Public Health, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
38.Department of Clinical Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
39.Clinical Hospital, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
40.Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
41.Department of Research, Philippine Institute for Development Studies, Quezon City, Philippines
42.Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
43.Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
44.Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
45.Clinical Research and Operations, Foundation for Scientific Research (FORS), Cotonou, Benin
46.Department of Global Health, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
47.Cochrane South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa
48.Grants, Innovation and Product Development Unit, Cape Town, South Africa
49.South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa
50.College of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
51.Department of Community Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
52.Department of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
53.Department of Sociology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria
54.Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
55.Department of Child Dental Health, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
56.Population Health Sciences, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
57.Centre of Excellence for Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa
58.Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
59.Nepal Health Frontiers, University of Southern Denmark, Kathmandu, Nepal
60.Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, United States
61.Center for Policy, Population & Health Research, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico
62.Center of Complexity Sciences, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico
63.Environmental Technologies Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
64.Environmental Health Engineering, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
65.Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
66.Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathy Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
67.Education Development Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
68.Medical Physics Department, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
69.Lincoln Medical School, Universities of Nottingham & Lincoln, Lincoln, United Kingdom
70.Economics and Rural Development Department, University of Gezira, Wad Madani, Sudan
71.Department of Epidemiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
72.Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
73.Department of Environmental Health Sciences and Technology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
74.Australian Center for Precision Health, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
75.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
76.Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
77.Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
78.School of Nursing, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
79.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, United States
80.Mayo Evidence-based Practice Center, Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Rochester, United States
81.John T. Milliken Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, United States
82.Clinical Epidemiology Center, Department of Veterans Affairs, St Louis, United States
83.Prevention Division, Queensland Health, Brisbane, Australia
84.Centre for Environment and Population Health, Griffith University, Nathan, Australia
85.Community Health and Epidemiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
86.Health Information Management and Technology Department, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
87.Environmental Health Department, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
88.Forensic Medicine Division, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
89.Nab'a Al-Hayat Foundation for Medical Sciences and Health Care, Najaf, Iraq
90.Center for Health System Research, Cuernavaca, Mexico
91.Health and Nutrition Research Center, Cuernavaca, Mexico
92.Center for Nutrition and Health Research, Cuernavaca, Mexico
93.Center for Population Health Research, Cuernavaca, Mexico
94.Health Systems Research Center, Cuernavaca, Mexico
95.National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico
96.School of Public Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia
97.School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia
98.Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
99.Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
100.Health Management and Economics Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
101.Health Economics Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
102.Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
103.Student Research Committee, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
104.Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
105.Pars Advanced and Minimally Invasive Medical Manners Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
106.Department of Neurosurgery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
107.School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
108.Department of Community and Family Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
109.Department of Health Policy and Management, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait
110.International Centre for Casemix and Clinical Coding, National University of Malaysia, Bandar Tun Razak, Malaysia
111.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
112.Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
113.Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
114.Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
115.Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
116.Clinical Research Development Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
117.Department of Anatomical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
118.Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
119.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
120.Department of Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
121.Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
122.Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
123.Department of Epidemiology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
124.Health Services Management Department, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
125.Department of Pediatrics, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
126.Medical Research Center, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
127.Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
128.Department of Parasitology, Sana'a University, Sana'a, Yemen
129.Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
130.Internal Medicine Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
131.Research Group in Health Economics, University of Cartagena, Cartagena, Colombia
132.Research Group in Hospital Management and Health Policies, University of the Coast, Barranquilla, Colombia
133.Department of Economic Sciences, University of the Coast, Barranquilla, Colombia
134.National Health Observatory, National Institute of Health, Bogota, Colombia
135.Colombian National Health Observatory, National Institute of Health, Bogota, Colombia
136.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of the Philippines Manila, Manila, Philippines
137.Department of Health Policy and Administration, University of the Philippines Manila, Manila, Philippines
138.Department of Nutrition, University of the Philippines Manila, Manila, Philippines
139.School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, United States
140.Center for Clinical Global Health Education, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, United States
141.Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, United States
142.Neuroradiology Division, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, United States
143.Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, United States
144.Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
145.Cardiology Department, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
146.Department of General Surgery, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
147.Department of Infectious Diseases, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
148.Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
149.School of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
150.Department of Applied Social Sciences, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
151.School of Nursing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
152.Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia
153.Agribusiness Study Program, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia
154.Neurology Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
155.Department of Entomology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
156.Department of Public Health, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
157.Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Saveh University of Medical Sciences, Saveh, Iran
158.Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran
159.School of Health Sciences, Western Sydney University, Campbelltown, Australia
160.Disciple of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Sydney, Westmead, Australia
161.Monitoring Evaluation and Operational Research Project, Abt Associates Nepal, Lalitpur, Nepal
162.School of Nursing and Midwifery, Babol, Iran
163.Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Babol, Iran
164.Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Babol, Iran
165.Student Research Committee, Babol, Iran
166.Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
167.Department of Nursing, Aksum University, Aksum, Ethiopia
168.School of Pharmacy, Aksum University, Aksum, Ethiopia
169.Department of Biomedical Sciences, Aksum University, Aksum, Ethiopia
170.Department of Immunology, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Iran
171.Department of Biology, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran
172.Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran
173.Department of Microbiology, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran
174.Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, Pune, India
175.School of Business, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom
176.Department of Statistics and Econometrics, Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania
177.King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India
178.Department of Nursing, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia
179.School of Public Health, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia
180.Department of Midwifery, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia
181.The Judith Lumley Centre, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia
182.School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia
183.School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Australia
184.Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana
185.Department of Family and Community Health, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana
186.Department of Nursing, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia
187.Public Health Risk Sciences Division, Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, Canada
188.Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
189.Centre for Global Child Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
190.Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
191.Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
192.Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Manipal, India
193.Centre for Bio Cultural Studies (CBiCS), Manipal, India
194.Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India
195.Department of Medical Microbiology, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia
196.School of Nursing and Midwifery, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia
197.School of Public Health, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia
198.Department of Hypertension, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
199.Polish Mothers' Memorial Hospital Research Institute, Lodz, Poland
200.Department of Internal Medicine, University of London, London, United Kingdom
201.Department of General Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
202.Pediatric Dentistry and Dental Public Health Department, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
203.Clinic for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
204.Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
205.Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
206.School of Public Health and Health Management, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
207.Department of Neurosciences, Costa Rican Department of Social Security, San Jose, Costa Rica
208.School of Medicine, University of Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica
209.Heidelberg Institute of Global Health (HIGH), Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany
210.T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, United States
211.Center for Primary Care, Harvard University, Boston, United States
212.Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard University, Boston, United States
213.Division of General Internal Medicine, Harvard University, Boston, United States
214.School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
215.Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
216.Imperial College Business School, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
217.Faculty of Information Technology, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology (HUTECH), Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
218.Health Human Resources Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
219.Non-communicable Disease Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
220.Department of Community Medicine, Gandhi Medical College Bhopal, Bhopal, India
221.Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, New York University, New York, United States
222.Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, New York University, New York, United States
223.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
224.Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
225.Department of Public Health, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
226.Department of Medicine, El Bosque University, Bogota, Colombia
227.Transplant Service, University Hospital Foundation Santa Fe de Bogotá, Bogota, Colombia
228.School of the Environment, Yale University, New Haven, United States
229.Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
230.Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
231.Malaria Atlas Project, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
232.Department of Public Health, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia
233.Faculty of Business and Economics, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia
234.Hubert Department of Global Health, Emory University, Atlanta, United States
235.Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Massachusetts, Medical School, Springfield, United States
236.Department of Statistical and Computational Genomics, National Institute of Biomedical Genomics, Kalyani, India
237.Department of Statistics, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India
238.Injury Division, New Delhi, India
239.The George Institute for Global Health, New Delhi, India
240.The George Institute for Global Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
241.Transport and Road Safety (TARS) Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
242.School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
243.School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
244.Centre of Excellence in Women & Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
245.Division of Women and Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
246.Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Ranica, Italy
247.National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
248.Research School of Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
249.Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh
250.Department of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran
251.Department of Biomedical Technologies, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow, Russian Federation
252.Department of Epidemiology and Evidence Based Medicine, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation
253.N. A. Semashko Department of Public Health and Healthcare, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation
254.Department of Information and Internet Technologies, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation
255.Neuroscience Unit, Institute for Scientific Research, High Technology Services, Panama City, Panama
256.Gorgas Memorial Institute for Health Studies, Panama City, Panama
257.Department of Community Medicine, Employee State Insurance Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Bangalore, India
258.School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
259.Al Shifa School of Public Health, Al Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
260.Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
261.Board of Directors, Buenos Aires, Argentina
262.Argentine Society of Medicine, Buenos Aires, Argentina
263.School of Medicine, University of the Valley of Cuernavaca, Cuernavaca, Mexico
264.Centre for Population Health Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore
265.Department of Health Care, Metropolitan Autonomous University, Mexico City, Mexico
266.Research Unit on Applied Molecular Biosciences (UCIBIO), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
267.Associated Laboratory for Green Chemistry (LAQV), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
268.EPIUnit - Public Health Institute University Porto (ISPUP), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
269.Epidemiology and Public Health Evaluation Group, National University of Colombia, Bogota, Colombia
270.Department of Public Health, National University of Colombia, Bogota, Colombia
271.Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia
272.School of Public Health, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
273.Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
274.Department of Social Work and Social Administration, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
275.Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan
276.Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
277.School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
278.The School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
279.Melbourne Medical School, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia
280.Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Christian Medical College and Hospital (CMC), Vellore, India
281.Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Christian Medical College and Hospital (CMC), Vellore, India
282.Department of Nephrology, Christian Medical College and Hospital (CMC), Vellore, India
283.Faculty of Biology, Hanoi National University of Education, Hanoi, Viet Nam
284.Discipline of Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
285.College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
286.Southgate Institute for Health and Society, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
287.Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
288.Health Systems and Policy Research Unit, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
289.Health Policy Research, Public Health Foundation of India, Gurugram, India
290.Disease Burden Department, Public Health Foundation of India, Gurugram, India
291.Indian Institute of Public Health, Public Health Foundation of India, Gurugram, India
292.Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India
293.Institute for Global Health Innovations, Duy Tan University, Hanoi, Viet Nam
294.Department of Information Technology, University of Human Development, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
295.Department of Computer Science, University of Human Development, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
296.Department of Pediatrics, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt
297.Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
298.Department of Immunology, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
299.Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
300.Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
301.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, United States
302.James P Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
303.Central University Tami Nadu, Thiruvarur, India
304.Department of Population and Development, Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico
305.Neonatal Nursing Department, St Paul's Hospital, Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
306.Nursing Department, St Paul's Hospital, Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
307.Department of Public Health, Ambo, Ethiopia
308.Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia
309.Wellcome Trust Brighton and Sussex Centre for Global Health Research, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, United Kingdom
310.School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
311.Department of Psychiatry, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
312.Department of Nursing and Midwifery, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
313.Department of Pharmacology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
314.School of Allied Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
315.Department of Community Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
316.Department of Mathematical Demography & Statistics, Mumbai, India
317.Department of Population Studies, Mumbai, India
318.International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, India
319.Health Research Section, Nepal Health Research Council, Kathmandu, Nepal
320.Department of Microbiology, Far Western University, Mahendranagar, Nepal
321.Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics, Autonomous University of Sinaloa, Culiacan Rosales, Mexico
322.Department of Health Promotion and Education, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
323.Department of Community Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
324.Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
325.Center of Excellence in Public Health Nutrition, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
326.Center of Excellence in Behavioral Medicine, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
327.Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Bangkok, Thailand
328.School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Sydney, Australia
329.Translational Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Sydney, Australia
330.Health Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University, Melbourne, Australia
331.School of Medicine, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil
332.Institute of Collective Health, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil
333.Department of Internal Medicine, Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, Brazil
334.School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
335.Centre Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia
336.Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia
337.Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland
338.Department of Clinical Pathology, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
339.World Health, Université du Québec en Abitibi- Témiscamingue, Quebec, Canada
340.Department of Community Medicine, Tripoli University, Tripoli, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
341.Health Information, World Health Organization (WHO), Tripoli, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
342.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
343.Department of Midwifery, Wolkite University, Wolkite, Ethiopia
344.Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, United States
345.Independent Consultant, Awka, Nigeria
346.International Institute for Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria
347.College of Medicine, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
348.Department of Psychology, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, Brazil
349.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil, Iran
350.Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil, Iran
351.Department of Community Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil, Iran
352.National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neurosciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
353.Research Center of Neurology, Moscow, Russian Federation
354.Department of Psychiatry, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
355.Department of Public Health Nutrition, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
356.Department of Neurobiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
357.Department of Medicine-Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
358.Global Public Health-Health Systems and Policy (HSP): Medicines Focusing Antibiotics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
359.Division of Neurology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
360.Psychiatry Department, Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, United States
361.School of Health Sciences, A.T. Still University, Mesa, United States
362.Institute of Gerontological Health Services and Nursing Research, Ravensburg-Weingarten University of Applied Sciences, Weingarten, Germany
363.Unit for Population-Based Dermatology Research, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
364.Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
365.Institute of Gerontology, National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
366.Department of Medical Parasitology, Abadan Faculty of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran
367.School of Public Health, Medical, and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Douglas, Australia
368.Department of Dermatology, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan
369.Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, United States
370.Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, United States
371.Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, United States
372.Open, Distance and eLearning Campus, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
373.Courseware Development and Production, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
374.Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
375.School of Economics, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
376.Department of Nursing, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia
377.School of Nursing and Midwifery, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia
378.Department of Public Health, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia
379.Department of Epidemiology, Mekelle, Ethiopia
380.Department of Biostatistics, Mekelle, Ethiopia
381.School of Public Health, Mekelle, Ethiopia
382.Department of Psychiatry, Mekelle, Ethiopia
383.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Mekelle, Ethiopia
384.Department of Environmental Health and Behavioral Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia
385.Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia
386.Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
387.Australian Research Centre for Population Oral Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
388.Robinson Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
389.School of Public Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
390.Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom
391.Division of Health Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom
392.Discipline of Public Health Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
393.Tuberculosis Biomarker Research Unit, Institute for Scientific Research and High Technology Services, City of Knowledge, Panama
394.Hudson College of Public Health, University of Oklahoma, Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, United States
395.Department of Health and Social Affairs, Government of the Federated States of Micronesia, Palikir, Federated States of Micronesia
396.Center for Clinical and Epidemiological Research, University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
397.Department of Internal Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
398.Center for Clinical and Epidemiological Research, Hospital Universitário, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
399.Department of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
400.Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil
401.Department of Dermatology, Boston University, Boston, United States
402.School of Public Health, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel
403.Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Iraq
404.Department of Microbiology, Saint James School of Medicine, The Valley, Anguilla
405.Department of Epidemiology, Saint James School of Medicine, The Valley, Anguilla
406.Epidemiology Unit, Agency for Health Protection, Milan, Italy
407.Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health (IPTSP), Federal University of Goias, Goiânia, Brazil
408.Department of Epidemiology, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai City, China
409.Medical Resources, March of Dimes, Arlington, United States
410.Health Policy, Management and Leadership, West Virginia University, School of Public Health, Morgantown, United States
411.Department of Preventive Cardiology, Eternal Heart Care Centre & Research Institute, Jaipur, India
412.Department of Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi University Medical Sciences, Jaipur, India
413.Department of Public Health, Erasmus University, Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands
414.Department of Psychology, University of Macau, Macao
415.School of Health and Environmental Studies, Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
416.Department of Public Health, Wachemo University, Hossana, Ethiopia
417.Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
418.Department of Dental Public Health, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia
419.Faculty of Public Health, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia
420.Department of Zoology and Entomology, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
421.Institute for Social Science Research, The University of Queensland, Indooroopilly, Australia
422.ARC Centre of Excellence for Children and Families over the Life Course, The University of Queensland, Indooroopilly, Australia
423.Department of Primary and Interdisciplinary Care, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
424.Department of Public Health, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia
425.Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
426.School of Business, London South Bank University, London, United Kingdom
427.Department of Public Health, Adigrat University, Adigrat, Ethiopia
428.Department for Health, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom
429.Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom
430.Department of Pharmacology, Bangladesh Industrial Gases Limited, Tangail, Bangladesh
431.Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Viet Nam
432.College of Science and Engineering, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Doha, Qatar
433.Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Central South University, Changsha, China
434.Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Shaikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al-Nahyan Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan
435.Department of Internal Medicine, Rochester General Hospital, Rochester, United States
436.Department of Epidemiology, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia
437.Department of Global Health, Economics and Policy, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia
438.College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
439.Graduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
440.Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Tehran, Iran
441.School of Management and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran
442.Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Research Center, Tehran, Iran
443.Department of Epidemiology, Tehran, Iran
444.Ophthalmic Research Center, Tehran, Iran
445.Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
446.Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia
447.Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
448.School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
449.School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
450.Postgraduate Institute of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka
451.Faculty of Graduate Studies, Institute for Violence and Injury Prevention, Colombo, Sri Lanka
452.Autism Spectrum Disorders Research Center, Hamadan, Iran
453.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Hamadan, Iran
454.Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan, Iran
455.Department of Biostatistics, Hamadan, Iran
456.Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
457.Department of Community Medicine, Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar Medical College & Hospital, Delhi, India
458.Department of Community Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
459.Environmental Research Center, Duke Kunshan University, Kunshan, China
460.Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, United States
461.Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, United States
462.Department of Ophthalmology, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany
463.Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing, China
464.Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Opole, Opole, Poland
465.School of Public Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
466.Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India
467.Institute for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University of Münster, Münster, Germany
468.International Research Center of Excellence, Institute of Human Virology Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria
469.Julius Centre for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands
470.Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands
471.Department of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany
472.Department of Prevention and Evaluation, Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology, Bremen, Germany
473.Department of Public Health, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
474.School of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
475.Department of Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Baku State University, Baku, Azerbaijan
476.Institute of Radiation Problems, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan
477.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan
478.Department of Population Sciences, Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh
479.Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom
480.College of Arts and Sciences, Ohio University, Zanesville, United States
481.The Iranian Academy of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
482.Department of Nutrition and Health Science, Ball State University, Muncie, United States
483.Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
484.School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xiamen University Malaysia, Sepang, Malaysia
485.Department of Nutrition, Simmons University, Boston, United States
486.Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway
487.School of Health Sciences, Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway
488.Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University, New Orleans, United States
489.Global Healthcare Consulting, New Delhi, India
490.Brain Engineering Research Center, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, Tehran, Iran
491.Independent Consultant, Jakarta, Indonesia
492.Department of Internal and Pulmonary Medicine, Sheri Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, India
493.CIBERSAM, San Juan de Dios Sanitary Park, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain
494.Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain
495.Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
496.Department of Demography, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada
497.Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada
498.Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, London, United Kingdom
499.Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
500.Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
501.National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom
502.Institute of Health Policy and Development Studies, National Institutes of Health, Manila, Philippines
503.Department of Community and Family Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
504.Medical Director, HelpMeSee, New York, United States
505.Mexican Institute of Ophthalmology, Queretaro, Mexico
506.Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore, India
507.Federal Research Institute for Health Organization and Informatics of the Ministry of Health (FRIHOI), Moscow, Russian Federation
508.School of Public Health, Haramaya University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia
509.Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Asia Programme, Hanoi, Viet Nam
510.Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China
511.Alliance for Improving Health Outcomes, Quezon City, Philippines
512.Ophthalmology Department, Ministry of Health & Population, Aswan, Egypt
513.Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Mysore Medical College & Research Institute, Mysooru, India
514.Department of Health & Family Welfare, Government of Karnataka, India
515.Department of Clinical Physiology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
516.School of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
517.Department of Population Studies, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia
518.Department of Economics, Autonomous Technology Institute of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico
519.Indonesian Public Health Association, Surabaya, Indonesia
520.Campus Caucaia, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceará, Caucaia, Brazil
521.Institute of Population Health Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
522.ICF International, DHS Program, Rockville, United States
523.Department of Ophthalmology, Singleton Hospital, Swansea, United Kingdom
524.Department of Pharmacy, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia
525.Department of Public Health, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia
526.Department of Environmental Health, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia
527.Neurology Department, Janakpuri Super Specialty Hospital Society, New Delhi, India
528.Department of Neurology, Govind Ballabh Institute of Medical Education and Research, New Delhi, India
529.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, United States
530.Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
531.Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, United States
532.School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, United States
533.College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
534.Research & Innovation Center, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
535.Peru Country Office, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), Lima, Peru
536.Breast Surgery Unit, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
537.University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
538.Clinical Microbiology and Parasitology Unit, Dr. Zora Profozic Polyclinic, Zagreb, Croatia
539.University Centre Varazdin, University North, Varazdin, Croatia
540.Center for Innovation in Medical Education, Szczecin, Poland
541.Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
542.Pacific Institute for Research & Evaluation, Calverton, United States
543.Global Institute of Public Health, Ananthapuri Hospitals, Research Institute, Trivandrum, India
544.Women's Social and Health Studies Foundation, Trivandrum, India
545.Internal Medicine Programme, Kyrgyz State Medical Academy, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
546.Department of Atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Disease, National Center of Cardiology and Internal Disease, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
547.Institute of Addiction Research (ISFF), Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Frankfurt, Germany
548.Department of Forestry, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Erbil, Iraq
549.Department of Public Health, Samara University, Semera, Ethiopia
550.Health and Environmental Sciences Department, Central University of Technology, Bloemfontein, South Africa
551.Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
552.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
553.National Center for Health Insurance Research, Iran Health Insurance Organization, Tehran, Iran
554.Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
555.Department of Biochemistry, Medical College for Women & Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh
556.Biomedical Research Foundation, Dhaka, Bangladesh
557.School of Medical Sciences, Science University of Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia
558.Department of Pediatric Medicine, The Children's Hospital & The Institute of Child Health, Multan, Pakistan
559.Department of Pediatrics & Pediatric Pulmonology, Institute of Mother & Child Care, Multan, Pakistan
560.Research and Analytics Department, Initiative for Financing Health and Human Development, Chennai, India
561.Department of Research and Analytics, Bioinsilico Technologies, Chennai, India
562.Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, United States
563.Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, United States
564.School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, United States
565.Suraj Eye Institute, Nagpur, India
566.Department of General Surgery, Emergency Hospital of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
567.School of Health Sciences, Surgical Nursing, Bahir Dar University, Gondar, Ethiopia
568.Department of Biological Sciences, University of Embu, Embu, Kenya
569.Public Health Department, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Kota Semarang, Indonesia
570.School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
571.Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
572.Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
573.Centre for Heart Rhythm Disorders, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
574.Administrative and Economic Sciences Department, University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
575.Department of Preventive Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemun-gu, South Korea
576.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada
577.Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada
578.Department of Psychiatry, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
579.Centre for Healthy Start Initiative, Lagos, Nigeria
580.Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria
581.Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria
582.Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
583.Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands
584.Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Energy and Natural Resources, Sunyani, Ghana
585.Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeswara Academy of Health Education and Research, Mysore, India
586.Department of Forensic Medicine, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Mangalore, India
587.Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Mangalore, India
588.Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Mangalore, India
589.Department of Medicine, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada
590.Department of Health Metrics, Center for Health Outcomes & Evaluation, Bucharest, Romania
591.Department of Medical Humanities and Social Medicine, Kosin University, Busan, South Korea
592.Department of Poverty, Gender and Youth, Population Council, New Delhi, India
593.Department of Pediatrics, RD Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, India
594.International Institute of Health Management Research, New Delhi, India
595.Center for Research and Innovation, Ateneo De Manila University, Pasig City, Philippines
596.Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Bergamo, Italy
597.Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, National Institute of Health Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan
598.Center for Integration of Data and Health Knowledge, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Salvador, Brazil
599.Department of Cardiology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
600.Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
601.University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
602.School of Economics and Business, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
603.School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
604.Clinical Research Center, Fundación Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia
605.Center for Studies in Social Protection and Health Economics, ICESI University, Cali, Colombia
606.National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Bucuresti, Romania
607.Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
608.College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, United States
609.Department of Community Medicine, Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Ambala, India
610.School of Nursing and Healthcare Professions, Federation University Australia, Berwick, Australia
611.Research Department, Policy Research Institute, Kathmandu, Nepal
612.Health and Public Policy Department, Global Center for Research and Development, Kathmandu, Nepal
613.Department of Radiation Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
614.Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
615.Academic Public Health England, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom
616.School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, CQ University, Sydney, Australia
617.River Region Cardiology Associates, Montgomery, United States
618.School of Nursing and Midwifery, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland - Bahrain, Muharraq Governorate, Bahrain
619.School of Social Sciences and Psychology, Western Sydney University, Penrith, Australia
620.Translational Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Penrith, Australia
621.Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, Australia
622.Cardiovascular Diseases Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran
623.Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, United States
624.Department of Surgery, University Teaching Hospital of Kigali, Kigali, Rwanda
625.Department of Clinical Research, Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Brazil
626.Clinical Epidemiology and Public Health Research Unit, Burlo Garofolo Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Trieste, Italy
627.Agrosavia, Palmira, Colombia
628.Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy
629.Department of Phytochemistry, Soran University, Soran, Iraq
630.Department of Nutrition, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
631.Department of Microbiology, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, India
632.School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
633.Public Health and Community Medicine Department, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
634.Department of Surgery, Marshall University, Huntington, United States
635.Department of Nutrition and Preventive Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, United States
636.Department of Community Medicine, PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Coimbatore, India
637.PSG-FAIMER South Asia Regional Institute, Coimbatore, India
638.Department of Geriatrics and Long Term Care, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar
639.Faculty of Health & Social Sciences, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom
640.UGC Centre of Advanced Study in Psychology, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, India
641.Udyam-Global Association for Sustainable Development, Bhubaneswar, India
642.Department of Public Health Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, United States
643.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Jigjiga University, Jigjiga, Ethiopia
644.Emergency Department, Manian Medical Centre, Erode, India
645.Department of Cardiology, Charité Medical University Berlin, Berlin, Germany
646.Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Berlin, Germany
647.Public Health Division, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine
648.Department of Internal Medicine, Ziauddin University, Karachi, Pakistan
649.Independent Consultant, Karachi, Pakistan
650.School of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
651.Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life, and Social Welfare, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden
652.Department of Community Medicine, BLDE University, Vijayapur, India
653.University School of Management and Entrepreneurship, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India
654.Centre for Medical Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
655.Public Health Department, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
656.National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan
657.College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea
658.Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland
659.Public Health Dentistry Department, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed to be University, Karad, India
660.Department of Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan
661.Department of Internal Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan
662.Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil
663.School of Public Health & Zoonoses, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary & Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, India
664.Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Asthma Bhawan, Jaipur, India
665.Max Hospital, Ghaziabad, India
666.Medicine Service, US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Birmingham, United States
667.Department of Epidemiology, School of Preventive Oncology, Patna, India
668.Department of Epidemiology, Healis Sekhsaria Institute for Public Health, Mumbai, India
669.Department of Ophthalmology, Hywel Dda University Health Board, Llanelli, United Kingdom
670.Department of Diseases and Non-communicable Diseases and Health Promotion, Federal Ministry of Health, Brasília, Brazil
671.Health Surveillance Secretariat, Ministry of Health, Brasília, Brazil
672.Department of Infectious Diseases, Kharkiv National Medical University, Kharkiv, Ukraine
673.Princess University Hospital, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
674.Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Madrid, Spain
675.Hull York Medical School, University of Hull, Hull City, United Kingdom
676.Division of Community Medicine, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
677.Nursing, Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta, Surakarta, Indonesia
678.Department of Agriculture and Food Systems, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
679.Department of Neurology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
680.Department of Criminology, Law, and Society, University of California Irvine, Irvine, United States
681.Department of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
682.Carlos III Health Institute, Biomedical Research Networking Center for Mental Health Network (CiberSAM), Madrid, Spain
683.Cancer Control Center, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Osaka, Japan
684.Research and Development Center for Humanities and Health Management, National Institute of Health Research & Development, Jakarta, Indonesia
685.Colgate University, Hamilton, United States
686.Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Central University of Kerala, Kasaragod, India
687.Department of Global Health Research, Adaptive Knowledge Management, Victoria, Canada
688.Institute of Public Health, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Kraków, Poland
689.Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System, Warsaw, Poland
690.Department of Pathology and Legal Medicine, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil
691.Modestum LTD, London, United Kingdom
692.Department of Health Economics, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Viet Nam
693.Molecular Medicine and Pathology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
694.Clinical Hematology and Toxicology, Maurice Wilkins Centre, Auckland, New Zealand
695.Department of Allied Health Sciences, Iqra National University, Peshawar, Pakistan
696.Velez Sarsfield Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina
697.Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran
698.Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
699.Occupational Health Unit, Sant'Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy
700.Department of Economics, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
701.Foundation University, Medical College, Foundation University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan
702.Department of Neurology, George Washington University, Washington, United States
703.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
704.Global Health Institute, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
705.Competence Center of Mortality-Follow-Up of the German National Cohort, Federal Institute for Population Research, Wiesbaden, Germany
706.Department of Physical Therapy, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand
707.Department of Medicine, University of Rajarata, Saliyapura Anuradhapuraya, Sri Lanka
708.Department of Health Economics, Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
709.Clinical Cancer Research Center, Milad General Hospital, Tehran, Iran
710.Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
711.Department of Public Health, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan
712.Department of Public Health and Health Systems, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
713.Department of Neuropsychopharmaology, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Japan
714.Department of Public Health, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan
715.Department of Health Policy and Management, Jackson State University, Jackson, United States
716.School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
717.Department of Health care Management and Economics, Urmia University of Medical Science, Urmia, Iran
718.Department of Medicine, University Ferhat Abbas of Setif, Sétif, Algeria
719.Maternal and Child Health Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
720.Unit on Child & Adolescent Health, Medical Research Council South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa
721.College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dilla University, Dilla, Ethiopia
722.School of Public Health, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
723.Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Occupational Hazard Identification and Control, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
724.Health Technology Assessment Unit, Department of Health Philippines, Manila, Philippines
725.#MentalHealthPH, Quezon City, Philippines
726.Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Department of Health Metrics Science, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, 98121, United States
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Deshpande, Aniruddha,Miller-Petrie, Molly K.,Lindstedt, Paulina A.,et al. Mapping geographical inequalities in access to drinking water and sanitation facilities in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000-17[J]. The Lancet Global Health,2020,8(9):e1162-e1185.
APA Deshpande, Aniruddha.,Miller-Petrie, Molly K..,Lindstedt, Paulina A..,Baumann, Mathew M..,Johnson, Kimberly B..,Blacker, Brigette F..,Abbastabar, Hedayat.,Abd-Allah, Foad.,Abdelalim, Ahmed.,Abdollahpour, Ibrahim.,Abegaz, Kedir Hussein.,Abejie, Ayenew Negesse.,Abreu, Lucas Guimarães.,Abrigo, Michael R.M..,Abualhasan, Ahmed.,Accrombessi, Manfred Mario Kokou.,Adamu, Abdu A..,Adebayo, Oladimeji M..,Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi.,...&Reiner, Robert C..(2020).Mapping geographical inequalities in access to drinking water and sanitation facilities in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000-17.The Lancet Global Health,8(9),e1162-e1185.
MLA Deshpande, Aniruddha,et al."Mapping geographical inequalities in access to drinking water and sanitation facilities in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000-17".The Lancet Global Health 8.9(2020):e1162-e1185.
Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[Deshpande, Aniruddha]'s Articles
[Miller-Petrie, Molly K.]'s Articles
[Lindstedt, Paulina A.]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[Deshpande, Aniruddha]'s Articles
[Miller-Petrie, Molly K.]'s Articles
[Lindstedt, Paulina A.]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[Deshpande, Aniruddha]'s Articles
[Miller-Petrie, Molly K.]'s Articles
[Lindstedt, Paulina A.]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.