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Measurement report: PM2.5-bound nitrated aromatic compounds in Xi'an, Northwest China - Seasonal variations and contributions to optical properties of brown carbon
Yuan, Wei1,6; Huang, Ru Jin1,2; Yang, Lu1; Wang, Ting1,6; Duan, Jing1,6; Guo, Jie1; Ni, Haiyan1,7; Chen, Yang3; Chen, Qi4; Li, Yongjie5; Dusek, Ulrike7; O'Dowd, Colin8; Hoffmann, Thorsten9

Nitrated aromatic compounds (NACs) are a group of key chromophores for brown carbon (light-absorbing organic carbon, i.e., BrC) aerosol, which affects radiative forcing. The chemical composition and sources of NACs and their contributions to BrC absorption, however, are still not well understood. In this study, PM2:5-bound NACs in Xi'an, Northwest China, were investigated for 112 daily PM2:5 filter samples from 2015 to 2016. Both the total concentrations and contributions from individual species of NACs show distinct seasonal variations. The seasonally averaged concentrations of NACs are 2.1 (spring), 1.1 (summer), 12.9 (fall), and 56 ngm3 (winter). Thereinto, 4-nitrophenol is the major NAC component in spring (58 %). The concentrations of 5-nitrosalicylic acid and 4-nitrophenol dominate in summer (70 %), and the concentrations of 4-nitrocatechol and 4-nitrophenol dominate in fall (58 %) and winter (55 %). The NAC species show different seasonal patterns in concentrations, indicating differences in emissions and formation pathways. Source apportionment results using positive matrix factorization (PMF) further show large seasonal differences in the sources of NACs. Specifically, in summer, NACs were highly influenced by secondary formation and vehicle emissions (80 %), while in winter, biomass burning and coal combustion contributed the most (75 %). Furthermore, the light absorption contributions of NACs to BrC are wavelength-dependent and vary greatly by season, with maximum contributions at 330 nm in winter and fall and 320 nm in summer and spring. The differences in the contribution to light absorption are associated with the higher mass fractions of 4-nitrocatechol (max D345 nm) and 4-nitrophenol (max D310 nm) in fall and winter, 4-nitrophenol in spring, and 5-nitrosalicylic acid (max D315 nm) and 4-nitrophenol in summer. The mean contributions of NACs to BrC light absorption at a wavelength of 365 nm in different seasons are 0.14% (spring), 0.09% (summer), 0.36% (fall), and 0.91% (winter), which are about 6-9 times higher than their mass fractional contributions of carbon in total organic carbon. Our results indicate that the composition and sources of NACs have profound impacts on the BrC light absorption.

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Indexed BySCIE
WOS Research AreaEnvironmental Sciences & Ecology ; Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
WOS SubjectEnvironmental Sciences ; Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
WOS IDWOS:000627702700001
Scopus ID2-s2.0-85102376545
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Cited Times [WOS]:15   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document TypeJournal article
CollectionFaculty of Science and Technology
Corresponding AuthorHuang, Ru Jin
Affiliation1.State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Center for Excellence in Quaternary Science and Global Change, Key Laboratory of Aerosol Chemistry and Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an, 710061, China
2.Institute of Global Environmental Change, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China
3.Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, 400714, China
4.State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China
5.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Taipa, 999078, Macao
6.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China
7.Centre for Isotope Research (CIO) Energy and Sustainability Research Institute Groningen (ESRIG), University of Groningen, 9747 AG, Netherlands
8.School of Physics and Centre for Climate and Air Pollution Studies, Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, University Road, H91CF50, Ireland
9.Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55128, Germany
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Yuan, Wei,Huang, Ru Jin,Yang, Lu,et al. Measurement report: PM2.5-bound nitrated aromatic compounds in Xi'an, Northwest China - Seasonal variations and contributions to optical properties of brown carbon[J]. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS,2021,21(5):3685-3697.
APA Yuan, Wei,Huang, Ru Jin,Yang, Lu,Wang, Ting,Duan, Jing,Guo, Jie,Ni, Haiyan,Chen, Yang,Chen, Qi,Li, Yongjie,Dusek, Ulrike,O'Dowd, Colin,&Hoffmann, Thorsten.(2021).Measurement report: PM2.5-bound nitrated aromatic compounds in Xi'an, Northwest China - Seasonal variations and contributions to optical properties of brown carbon.ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS,21(5),3685-3697.
MLA Yuan, Wei,et al."Measurement report: PM2.5-bound nitrated aromatic compounds in Xi'an, Northwest China - Seasonal variations and contributions to optical properties of brown carbon".ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 21.5(2021):3685-3697.
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